List The Four Major Components of Soil and Their Functions

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Soil Constituent Components
In General, the soil is composed of 4 major components. The four components of the soil material is constituent minerals, organic matter, water, and air. Due to the difference in the type of each of these components, the soil can then be classified into several types. In addition, the types of land that appears is also affected by how the process of the formation of land and the factors that shape it.

List The Four Major Components of Soil and Their Functions

The four components of the constituent soils occupy one space on the surface of the Earth with the composition and percentage of each. The percentage of soil constituent components in General can be displayed in the pie chart below.

Soil Constituent Components

1. Mineral Materials (45%)
Mineral material is constituent of the soil with the highest percentage, i.e. 45% range. These components are formed from rock weathering processes which take place within a period of time. 

2. Organic matter (5%)
Constituent components of soil organic matter is next. This component is derived from the process of decomposition of organic matter derived from animals and plants die. The decomposition is performed by this species or detrivivor change the organic matter into organic compounds contained in the soil. Although available in little percentages, that is about 5%, the organic compounds would greatly affect soil properties, particularly its chemical and physical properties.
  • Organic matter in the soil from which soil organic matter content based on its source can be distinguished into three, namely:
  • Primary source is a source of organic matter derived from plants that are dead, that form part of the network, such as root, stem, leaf, etc.
  • The secondary source is a source of organic matter derived from animals that have died, including dirt or parts of the body.
  • Tertiary sources are sources of organic matter derived from the granting of organic fertilizers, be it in the form of green manure, manure, compost or fertilizer.

3. Water (25%)
Water and air is a constituent component of the land on which the percentage is dynamic or can change change. Water and air are both occupy the land. If the moisture content of the soil is high, then the air content of the soil will be getting lower. So did the opposite. 

The presence of water in the soil is the result of soil capabilities in absorbing water through the mechanism of cohesion, adhesion, or gravity. The presence of water in the soil can be distinguished into:
  • Roomy capacity. Is a State in which the land is quite humid indicated by the maximum amount of water that can be held down the ground due to the gravitational pull of the style.
  • Permanent wilting point. Is a State in which the plants roots start not able to absorb ground water because of very little substance. Due to the permanent wilting point reaches land, plants will usually start to wither.
  • Water is available. Is the difference in water content capacity with permanent wilting point moisture content.

4. Air (25%)
The content of the air in the soil allows the soil microorganisms can live and perform the metabolism. Soil constituent components this one occupies about 25% of the overall volume of the soil. The nature of the presence of air in soil dynamic allows it can be pushed out of the soil when the moisture content of the soil increases.

Well, so the 4 components of soil constituents and explanation. Hopefully this can be a new insight for you in identifying components abiotic component of this one so that it could be a guideline in preventing pollution of the soil at a later date.

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