Global Water Resources: Factors and Strategy

Growing pressure on the world’s water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. Even as the planet’s endowment of water is expected to remain constant, human appropriation of water, already at 50 percent by some measures, is expected to increase further (Postel et al. 1996). 

Global Water Resources Factors and Strategy

Pressures on water resources are likely to worsen in response to population growth, shifts toward more meat-based diets, climate change, and other challenges. Moreover, the world’s water is increasingly becoming degraded in quality, raising the cost of treatment and threatening human and ecosystem health (Palaniappan et al. 2010). 

Furthermore, the physical availability of freshwater resources does not guarantee that a safe, affordable water supply is available to all. At least 780 million people do not have access to clean drinking water, some 2.5 billion people lack access to safe sanitation systems, and 2–5 million people—mainly children—die as a result of preventable water-related diseases every year (Gleick 2002; UN 2009).

The factors of water resources:
Several factors related to the issue of water resources, among others are: 
a) The conditions of water resources.
In many areas the rainy season flood knocked, and vice versa in the dry season many areas experiencing water shortages. Both flood or drought, both of which greatly affect the national food security. During the flood of the year 1999/2000 acres of rice fields were recorded 272,757 Ha and 73,892 Ha of which suffered damage (harvests). 3) in the dry season rice recorded 1997/1998 year drought covering an area of 617,161 Ha and 128,610 Ha of which experienced a failed harvest.

b) The increase of population.
The increase of the population of its uneven became one of the factors the causes of inequality and the balance of water on the Islands. All of which requires not only water for drinking purposes only, but the water needs more precisely to the water to produce food. 

c) The availability and performance of the infrastructure and facilities.
The poor water-prone taeniatus still had to struggle to get clean water to the price is more expensive than the more capable group in urban areas. Limited access to water supply and sanitation results in uptake of water an increasingly uncontrolled land beyond "safe yield". Retrieval of ground water of unbridled, in addition to being a source of salt water intrusion causes is also a source of amblesan causes the soil permanently which resulted in increased extent of the flood-prone areas, especially in urban areas. 

d) Institutional Governments that deal with management of the SDAS.
Government institutions both in the Center as well as in everyday areas related authority and responsibility in the implementation of the management of the SDAS, still more dominant role in the tasks of reconstruction and rehabilitation of the infrastructure of DDI. As for matters relating to the Affairs of the setting and water services, as well as the monitoring and evaluation of the condition of affairs SDA is still not enough adequate both in terms of its institutional capacity as well as the quality of the band's style. 

e) Behavior of the community of users of water resources.
Good to poor water conditions are also greatly influenced by the behavior of the user community and the public water users land on a river basin. From irrigation water users this is expected to be the use of water-saving efforts, so that the efficiency of the water can be harnessed for other needs such as for household needs and industries. The effort-saving use of water for irrigation is currently still undergoing various obstacles are mainly due to the culture of excessive water usage and yet farmers in assembling peace water users that makes it easy management

f) Conditions and the use of space in the watershed.
Conditions and the use of space in the watershed have had their fair share of the continuity of the water flow all the time as well as its quality.  

g) Availability of laws and guidelines.
Many programs, activities and operational measures that forced stagnated because of constrained by limitations of the product regulations, standards or guidelines. 

Strategy of water resources:
The effort that needs to be done to improve the management of SDA is to instill an understanding of IWRM concept to all the parties concerned to understand. SDA management alignment includes two major components, namely natural and non-natural systems. Alignment on the natural systems management components, including: 
1) The upstream Region) downstream.
2) Quantity of water with water quality.
3) Rain water with surface water, and underground water.
4) Land use (land use) and the efficient use of water (water use).

While the alignment on the components of the management system of non-natural, at least include:
1) Alignment between related sectors in the formulation of policies, and programs at the central level and area.
2) Alignment between all the parties concerned (stakeholders) in planning and decision making. 
3) Alignment between the administration area both horizontally as well as vertically.

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